Thomas Müntzer: German Radical Reformer

Biographical Sketch

by Garrett McQueen, Biola University


Summary of life:

1489- Born in Stolberg


  • Studied at the University of Leipzig in 1506
  • Studied at the University of Frankfurt in 1512


  • He was an assistant teacher in Halle in 1513 and a clergyman and teacher in Aschersleben from 1514-1515
  • He worked as a prior at Frohse monastery at Aschersleben from 1516-1517
  • He taught at the Braunschweig Martineum until 1518
  • He pursued literary studies at Beuditz monastery at Weissenfels from 1519-1520.
  • In 1520 he became a preacher at the Marienkirche at Zwickau, and here he became more publicly known

Influence and recognition:

Influenced By:

  • Martin Luther– influenced Thomas Müntzer as through the posting of the 95 Theses, for Müntzer met Luther in Wittenberg in 1517 and was involved in preliminary discussions about the posting. Luther’s reform ideas influenced Muntzer towards reform. Through Muntzer’s presence at the disputation in Leipzig, Luther recommended him to a preach in Zwickau.
  • Nikolaus Storch– a leader of a reform group called the “Zwickau prophets” who led Müntzer to believe that “true authority lay in the inner light given by God to his own, rather than in the Bible”.
  • Influenced by Mystics such as:  Meister Eck and Johannes Tauler, but particularly Joachim Floras


  • Thomas Müntzer influenced the peasants and common folk throughout his life, preaching that in view of their poor condition, they were God’s elect, meant to bring about his will to the world, specifically the millennium.
  • The sect he joined in Zwickau influenced prominent people such Christian theologian Andreas Karlstadt, Christian reformer Philip Melanchthon and Martin Luther

Known for:

  • Speaking out against the Franciscan order, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy and the veneration of saints.
  • Claimed to be the founder of the Anabaptist movement:
  1. Anabaptists believed “they were the true elect of God who did not require any external authority” (Jasper Ridley, Bloody Mary’s Martyrs)
  2. Believed in separation of church and state, the state had no right to punish or execute anyone for religious beliefs or teachings-radical notion-every government in Europe saw them as a potential threat of both religious and political power
  3. they denied infant baptism, and denied divinity of Christ, they advocated a form of communism, denouncing private property
  • Joining a Mystic sect of cloth-workers at Zwickau in 1520:
    • This sect experienced many visions and ecstasies. The Patrician counsel in Zwickau forbid them to preach, and after Müntzer encouraged them to disobey that restriction, new prohibitions of prosecutions and imprisonments followed. 1521, the group of cloth-workers fled the town.
    •  Müntzer fled to Prague and began preaching against the clergy and preached against “the dead letter”, he believed it was necessary to receive supplemental inspiration of elect persons. At Prague he published a manifesto in which he initiated a final Reformation which included a new church led by the Holy Spirit. However, his preached was unsuccessful because the city had been exhausted with to religious fanaticism for too long.
  • Set up a type of communist society in Muhlhausen in March of 1525 from which came the Peasant’s war
  • Being at great odds with Luther as his theological convictions changed and grew
    • He did not always agree with Luther and proved to be an independent thinker. Later found Luther a lukewarm reformer, particularly because of his bibliolatry, and Luther’s his accepting of certain church dogmas while rejecting others. (Ernest Belfort Bax, Peasants’ War in Germany)
    • “The monks had such big mouths that if one would cut off a few pounds[from their mouths] there would still be enough left with which they could continue their nonsensical prattling.”
    • Müntzer’s teachings disagreed with Luther’s doctrine of justification and the sola scriptura.
  • He preached in Glauchau, gathering many followers, and in 1522 he arrived in Halle where he may have met his future wife, Ottilie von Gersen, who he married and had two children with.
  • In 1523 he became a preacher in Allstedt. Muntzer’s provocative preaching style in Allstedt caused Luther to write a letter to George Spalatin(a Lutheran living in the area) advising all Lutherans to withdraw support of  Müntzer for Luther said he “abused scripture” and that his preaching style had led to violence.
  • Thomas  Müntzer formed the Allstedt League, a society committed to reform.
    • At this time Robert Friedmann claimed, “Muntzer lost altogether his sense of reality and embarked on a road of romantic fanaticism”. (Robert Friedman, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online)
    • Müntzer claimed that his teachings came from the Holy Spirit.
    • In 1524 Thomas  Müntzer arrived in Muhlhausen. He believed his ideas should be applied to economics and politics as well as religion.
    • Frederick Engels wrote that Müntzer believed in “a society with no class differences, no private property and no state authority independent of, and foreign to, members of society”(Frederick Engels, The German Peasants’ War)
    • He believed peasants were God’s elect and would further his will to the world.
    • In March 1525, Müntzer succeeded in taking over the Muhlhausen town council and setting up a type of communist society. By the spring of the 1525, Muntzer’s actions had caused a rebellion known as the Peasants’ war, and this rebellion had spread to much of central Germany. This war arose from a desire for old privileges of the system of serfdom and a removal of injustices. Eric W. Gritsch explains this system of serfdom, “From the ninth until the twelfth century, feudalism had been a relatively well-ordered social structure in Europe. It was based on the Teutonic kings’ practice of offering land, knows as “fiefs” to the most loyal members of their army.” Gritsch explains that these fief holders were awarded land, and peasants tilled the land. The serf owned part of the land that he tilled for the landlord and he would divide resources with the rest of the community. However, when Roman law had greater influence in Europe, the peasants were oppresses because their status became determined on the amount of owned property. This meant increased labor for peasants. (Reformer without a church). The peasants published their grievances in a manifesto title The Twelve Articles of the Peasants. The document asked that their demands should judged by the Word of God.
    • Luther had no sympathy for the peasant and said “The pretenses which they made in their twelve articles, under the name of the Gospel, were nothing but lies. It is the devil’s work that they are at…. They have abundantly merited death in body and soul. In the first place they have sworn to be true and faithful, submissive and obedient, to their rulers, as Christ commands… Because they are breaking this obedience, and are setting themselves against the higher powers, willfully and with violence, they have forfeited body and soul, as faithless, perjured, lying, disobedient knaves and scoundrels are wont to do.” (Luther also published a tract titled Against the Murdering Thieving Hordes of Peasants.)
    • Despite this, Thomas Müntzer led about 8000 peasants into battle in Frankenhausen on May 15th 1525. Muntzer’s rally was “Forward, forward, while the iron is hot. Let your swords be ever warm with blood!”
    • They should no chance against the armed soldiers of Philip I of Hesse and Duke George of Saxony. Over 3000 peasants were killed. (Hans J. Hillerbrand, Encyclopedia Britannica)
    • Müntzer was captured 10 days later. And as he awaited his execution, he wrote a letter to his friends in Muhlhausen from his prison in Heldrungen in which he asked them to care for his wife and dispose of his possessions. (Eric Gritsch, Thomas Müntzer: A Tragedy of Errors)


  • Müntzer was tortured and executed on May 27th, 1525. His head and body were displayed as a warning to all those who preach treasonous doctrines. (Hillerbrand, Encyclopedia Britannica)

Original Works:

  • “His most important religious, liturgical and theological writings originated there. They included German Church Office, German-Protestant Mass, Protestation or Defense…Regarding the Beginning of the True Christian Faith and Baptism, Of Written Faith and Precise Exposure of False Belief.” (Paul Wappler)
  • Compiled works: Revelation and Revolution: Basic Writings of Thomas Muntzer

Secondary Works:

Eric W. Gritsch, Thomas Müntzer: A Tragedy of Errors

Tom Scott, Thomas Müntzer: Theology and Revolution in the German Reformation.


(, John Simkin. “Spartacus Educational.” Spartacus Educational. Accessed October 11, 2016.

Bax, Ernest Belfort. The Peasants’ War in Germany, 1525-1526. New York: A.M. Kelley, 1968.

Wappler, Paul. Thomas Müntzer in Zwickau Und Die “Zwickauer Propheten.”Gütersloh: Mohn, 1966.

“Thomas Muntzer.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed October 11, 2016.

Engels, Frederick. “The Peasant War in Germany.” By Frederick Engels 1850. Accessed October 11, 2016.

“Müntzer, Thomas (1488/9-1525).” – GAMEO. Accessed October 11, 2016.üntzer,_Thomas_(1488/9-1525).

Ridley, Jasper Godwin. Bloody Mary’s Martyrs: The Story of England’s Terror. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2001.


Menno Simons



 Biographical Sketch

By Joshua Shirey, Biola University


Summary of life:

  • 1496, born in the Dutch village of Witmarsum
  • Raised in a Roman Catholic family that encouraged him to be educated as a priest
  • His father was a farmer, and Simons’ maintained compassionate towards the common man throughout his life.
  • 1524, Ordained as a catholic priest.
  • 1531-1536, Village pastor in his hometown of Witmarsum. For these years, he was more comfortable to leisure in drinking and in cards than to spend excess time on his parish duties.
  • April 1535, in his own words, this is when he “accepts God’s grace.”
  • January 30, 1536, renounces the Catholic Church and joins the Anabaptists
  • In 1536 he settled in the northern Dutch Province of Groningen for religious freedom.
  • January 8, 1539, Tjard Reynders, a God-fearing Anabaptist in Leeuwarden, was executed solely because he had given a temporary home to Menno.
  • 1542, Edict for his arrest issued by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 1543, moved to Germany where he united the Anabaptists there.
  • 1543, Though he spent much time in hiding, at least seven of his works were in circulation by this time.
  • 1554, first permanent home in Wustenfelde.
  • January 31, 1561, died in his own home.

 Influence and Recognition:

Who influenced Simons?

  • Tertullian, Cyprian, Eusebius all influenced him as he was being trained as a priest because he valued early church history.
  • Martin Luther influenced him through his writings when they started to circulate. Eventually, as Simons developed his own ideas he started to disagree with Luther.
  • Sicke Freerks was executed for being baptized as an adult, and Menno started to question even more why someone would die in order to be baptized a second time.
  • Butzer of Strausburg and Bullinger of Zurich were those who gave him reasons for refining his views against infant baptism (he countered their arguments).
  • Obbe Philips most likely ordained him Simons as a bishop.
  • The Sacramentists, a group highly critical of the Catholic Church, helped to incept Simons’ doubt in the physical presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

Who did Simons influence?

  • The Obbenites, Peter Jans, Lukas Lamberts and Jan Claezoon (both executed as martyrs), and the Mennonites.

What was Simons known for?

  • He gathered together the Mennonite church and provided them with leadership and stability.
  • His deep conviction and courage in the midst of a life of fleeing persecution
  • Two fundamental ideals: practical holiness, and the high view of the church
  • His emphasis on Scripture as the foundation (Sola Scriptura).
  • Even though he does not seem to be as noted as his contemporaries, he is best remembered by his character and message, which were centered in a conviction and devotion to God and His truth.

Key theological ideas

  • A Christian ought to be marked by his pursuit of sanctification.
  • Reason and philosophies can detrimental and can distract one from the pure essence of Scripture. If something is not clearly stated in Scripture, it should be avoided.
  • His preaching centered around the priesthood of all believers, adult baptism, pacifism, and a rejection of magisterial offices.
  • Christians ought to be a bride of Christ worthy of her calling; that is, one that presents itself as pure and blameless (sanctification was both individual and communal.
  • Excommunication was a necessary Biblical method of discipline.
  • Infant baptism and Christ’s physical presence in the eucharist do not accord to Scripture.


He wrote primarily for the common man. He does not spend much time in systematic theology nor in reasoning on secondary and tertiary issues; the main core of his writing is focused on Scripture and sound doctrine. However, it is hard to understand what he means because he uses many of Scriptures’ metaphors and illustrations without providing much commentary on their meanings.


  • He is noted as writing so that the common man may understand. His works on sometimes mystical by his association with the Anabaptists, though one can see his works as conferring better with sermons.
  • His writings also served as letters. He wrote letter exposing a false teaching of those he deemed were leading others astray.

Major Works and Publications:

  • Dat fundament des christelycken leers (1539; A Foundation of Plain Instruction , 1835) published by a press in Zwolle, Nethelands, Possibly Joh. Enschede.
  • Van dat rechte christen ghelooue (c. 1542; The True Christian Faith , 1871), published possibly by Jan Claesz.
  • Verclaringhe des Christelycken doopsels (c. 1542; Christian Baptism , 1871)
  • The Blasphemy of Jan van Leyden 1535

Many of the English works have been compiled and published by Mennonite Publishing House in Scottdale, Pennsylvania. It is difficult to find publication data because he was constantly on the move.

Secondary Works

Voz, Karl. Zijn leven en sijne reformatorische denkbeeiden. Leiden, 1914.

Doornkaat Koolman, Jacobus ten. Dirk Philips: Friend and Colleague of Menno Simons, 1504-1568.

Littell, Franklin H. A Tribute to Menno Simons. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1961.

Voolstra, Sjouke. Menno Simons: His Image and Message. North Newton, Kans.: Bethel College, 1997.

Isaak, Helmut. 2006. Menno Simons and the New Jerusalem. n.p.: Kitchener, Ont. : Pandora Press, c2006., 2006.Biola Library Catalog, EBSCOhost (accessed October 13, 2016).

Dyck, Cornelius J. 1962. A legacy of faith : the heritage of Menno Simons ; a sixtieth anniversary tribute to Cornelius Krahn. n.p.: Newton, Kan.: Faith and Life Press, [1962], 1962. Biola Library Catalog, EBSCOhost (accessed October 13, 2016).


Swygart, Glenn L. 2016. “Menno Simons.” Salem Press Biographical EncyclopediaResearch Starters, EBSCOhost (accessed October 13, 2016).

Roth, John D. 1996. “The Mennonites’ Dirty Little Secret: What Christians could learn from Menno Simons and how he rescued the Anabaptist movement.” Christianity Today 40, no. 11: 44-48. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 13, 2016).

Grislis, Egil. 1995. “Menno Simons on Sanctification.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 69, no. 2: 226-246. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 13, 2016).

Littell, Franklin H. A Tribute to Menno Simons. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1961.

Horst, Irvin B. A Bibliography of Menno Simons. Netherlands: N.V. Drukkerij Trio, 1962.

Harold, Bender S. Menno Simons’ Life and Writings. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1944.

Horsch, John. His Life, Labors, and Teachings. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1916.

Voolstra, Sjouke. Menno Simons: His Image and Message. North Newton, Kans.: Bethel College, 1997.


Katharina Schütz Zell

Biographical Sketch 

by Brianna Smith, Biola University


Lutheran Reformer: Church Mother (Kirchenmutter) of Strasbourg

Life Events

1497/8 – Katharina is born to a devout Strasbourg family.

1505 – At the age of 7, Katharina dedicated her attention to religious matters.

1508 – Katharina dedicated herself to the church, to a life of celibacy & good works, at 10.

1518 – Matthias Zell is installed as the new priest of Strasbourg.

1521 – Katharina is converted to evangelical faith through the preaching of Matthias Zell

1523 – Katharina marries Matthias Zell

1524-1558 – Katharina published the majority of her works

1526-7 – The Zell’s first child was born and died.

1548 – Katharina’s husband Matthias Zell dies

1562 – Katharina dies in Strasbourg


Strasbourg: a rich urban center that had many religious, political, economic, and cultural benefits.

Reformation: In 1518, Matthias Zell is appointed priest of Strausbourg. A follower of Luther, he began preaching salvation by faith alone. Because of Luther’s writings and Zell’s preaching, Katharina adopted Lutheran theology.

Matthias Zell: Matthias Zell (1477-1548), a prominent reformer, was the bishop of Strausbourg and played an instrumental role in Katharina coming to a protestant understanding of salvation. Katharina and Matthias were married in 1523 and remained married for 25 years until his death in 1548.


Marriage: Katharina was a staunch supporter of clerical marriage. The Zell marriage led to many other clerical marriages in Strasbourg.

Katharina was the most published female theologian of the reformation era.


Katharina had a leaning towards Reformed theology. Katharina believed that it was through Christ alone that one could be saved. Her understanding was that Scripture alone was the foundation for Christian doctrine. She believed that those who receive the gift of faith are saved by faith alone and not by works. Mass did not offer sacrificial atonement; rather it was a gift of grace from God to his people. She understood that Christ was the “bread of heaven” and that the Lord’s Supper was a spiritual feeding with the proper response being love for neighbor. She accepted infant baptism, but did not see it as necessary for salvation.


Type of works: Katharina wrote devotionals, pastoral counsel, catechisms, theology, historical and autobiographical apologetics, letters, and even a sermon. She was able to write well-articulated pieces that integrated biblical and Protestant theology well in a winsome manner, with humor and confidence.

List of Works

Zell, Katharina. 1524. Letter to the suffering women of the community of Kentzingen, who believe in Christ, sisters with me in Jesus Christ. [Augsburg]: [Philip Ulhart d.Ä.].

Zell, Katharina. 1524. Katharina Schütz’s Apologia for Master Matthew Zell, Her Husband, Who is a pastor and servant of the Word of God in Strasbourg, because of the great lies invented about him. Strassburg: W. Köpffel.

Zell, Katharina, and Ludwig Rabus. 1557. A letter to the whole citizenship of the city of Strasbourg from Katharina Zell, widow of the now blessed Matthew Zell, the former and first preacher of the gospel in this city, concerning Mr. Ludwig Rabus, now a preacher of the city of Ulm, together with two letters: hers and his. May many read these and judge without favor or hate but alone take to heart the truth. Also a healthy answer to each article of his letter.


“Katherina Schütz Zell (1497/8-1562).” Published June 22, 2015. Christian Worldview Journal. Accessed October 2, 2016.

McKee, Elsie Anne. Katharina Schütz Zell Volume 1: The Life and Thought of a Sixteenth-Century Reformer. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

McKee, Elsie Anne. Katharina Schütz Zell Volume 2: The Writings A Critical Edition. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Nielson, Christian Thomas. “Women Confront the Reformation: Katharina Schütz Zell, Teresa of Avila, and Religious Reform in the Sixteenth Century.” MA thesis Simon Fraser University, 2001.

 “Women of the Reformation, Part 2: Katherine Zell – Speaking Truth to Power.” Published September 28, 2010. RPM Ministries. Accessed October 02, 2016.

Zell, Katharina Schütz. 2007. The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe : Church Mother : The Writings of a Protestant Reformer in Sixteenth-Century Germany. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. Accessed October 2, 2016. ProQuest ebrary.


William Farel

Biographical Sketch

by Caleb Hickenlooper, Biola University

screenshot-2016-10-06-13-22-10Summary of life:

  • Born Guillaume Farel (William Farel) in 1489 near the small town of Gap, France.
  • Noble lineage and intended by family to go into military service, but chose the academic life and went to the University of Paris.
  • Received Master of Arts in 1517 and began to teach at the college of Cardinal Lemoine.
  • Experienced gradual conversion to the Protestant Gospel studying Scripture over the first few years of his teaching position. (Almost simultaneous with Zwingli and Luther.) ● Began working towards Reform in earnest in 1521.
  • Moved from town to town advocating iconoclastic Reform wherever he could.
  • In July 1536 he persuaded (morally compelled) Calvin to join him in Geneva. They co-led the cause there until they were banished from the city in 1538.
  • Continued to travel, but made Neuchâtel his base of operations until his death.
  • In 1558, at the (then) very old age of 69, he was married for the first time to a very young refugee against Calvin’s strong advice.
  • Calvin died in 1564.
  • Farel died soon after, on September 13th 1565, after returning from a typically energetic preaching campaign in Metz.

Influence and Recognition Influences:


  • Was tutored by Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (Jacob Faber), a notable humanist doing similar work to Erasmus.
  • Influenced early in his career by Johannes Oecolampadius, the German humanist and Reformer.
  • Strongly influenced by Calvin through long association.


  • He was a very early and vocal supporter of Reform in French-speaking Switzerland. His preaching and advocacy helped lay the foundation both for doctrine and for the overall spirit and culture of the movement.
  • He would always strategically position himself to influence the political and religious decisions of the time, to the point that tracking all the campaigns and relocations of his ministry would pretty well follow the political and cultural development of the region.○ Defended his 13 theses against Roman Doctrine in 1524.○ Planted the Reformation movement in Neuchâtel in 1530.
  • He is perhaps most famous for compelling John Calvin to remain in Geneva. It is important to note that appropriation of pastoral resources was nothing out of the ordinary for Farel. Far more lay-people were converting than priests and the flock needed shepherds. (Though he obviously didn’t ask just anyone to help lead the movement.)
  • He was Calvin’s most trusted friend and advisor almost all his life.


  • Almost universally beloved by his friends and co-workers.
  • Regularly criticized for his lack of tact: saw the world as a battleground between the work of the Devil and the work of the Spirit, so he saw any attack on the deceptions of the Roman Church as a net gain.
  • He was the counterpoint to Calvin’s timid and studious temperament: a supremely effective man of strategy and action.
  • The scandal of his marriage in old age (strongly opposed by Calvin) is a prominent blemish on his legacy.


  • He was deeply, emphatically concerned with prayer. Zuidema posits that this is at least part of the reason that Farel is relatively neglected in historical studies: prayer is subject that is difficult to submit to the empirical cause and effect methodologies of modern historical studies. (Zuidema)
  • Dedicated to the idea of the people hearing the Word of God in their native tongue and of God hearing from them in their native tongue.
  • Dedicated to the complete abolition of the Catholic Mass. Saw the entire practice of Mass as the epicenter of the false piety of the Roman Church.
  • Otherwise very much in keeping with prevailing theology of the Swiss Reformation.


  • During his time, Farel was primarily known for his vigor and zeal in preaching, his skill and energy in obtaining and connecting resources for the cause, and his strong dedication to his flock. Unfortunately, no copies of his sermons are extant.
  • The Sommarie (Summary) is his most systematic and influential work. It is intended mainly as a teaching manual and evangelistic tool. He deliberately neglects standard credibly established statements concerning Christ and the Trinity, so as to solidify the centrality of Scripture in theological reasoning and avoid anything that “might suggest scholastic speculations.” It focuses instead on the Salvation of God in Christ and Biblically established standards of Christian living. (Originally written 1529, regularly revised and expanded.) (Nijenhuis, 79-80)
  • He adapted a Bernese (German Swiss) Reformed liturgy for use by French-speaking churches (1533).
  • We also have a few topical treatises: on purgatory (1534), on the Lord’s Prayer (1543), and on the Supper (1555).
  • It should be noted that He wrote all of his treatises in French, seeking to abandon all intellectual pretense and to connect people more directly to God.


Bevan, Francis. William Farel. True Stories of God’s Servants. Alfred Holness, London.1858.

Blackburn, Wm. N. William Farel and the Story of the Swiss Reform. Presbyterian Board of Publication. Philadelphia, 1865.

Calvin, Jean, Jules Bonnet, and Marcus Robert Gilchrist. 1858. Letters of John Calvin: compiled from the original manuscripts and edited with historical notes. n.p.: Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1858., 1858. Biola Library Catalog,

Olson, Jeannine E. The Encyclopedia of Protestantism, s.v. “Guillaume Farel.” London: Routledge, 2004.

Barthel, Pierre, Rémy Scheurer, and Richard Stauffer, eds. Actes du colloque Guillaume Farel: Neuchâtel, 29 september-ler octobre 1980. 2 vols. Cahiers de la Revue deThéologie et de Philosophie no.

Farel, Guillaume. Le Pater noster et le credo en françoys. Edited by Francis Higman. Texteslittéraires français. Geneva, Switzerland: Librarie Croz, 1982. (First Published 1524.)

——————— Sommaire it brève déclaration, 1525. Edited by Arthur-L. Hofer. Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Éditions Belle Rivière, 1980.

Nijenhuis, Willem. Ecclesia Reformata: Studies on the Reformation Volume 1 of Ecclesiareformata: studies on the Reformation Part 3 of Kerkhistorische Bijdragen , Vol 1,BRILL, 1972.

Zuidema, Jason, Guillaume Farel, and Theodore Van Raalte. 2011. Early French Reform :The Theology and Spirituality of Guillaume Farel. Farnham, Surrey, England:Routledge, 2011. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 29, 2016).