Biographical Sketch of Thomas Muntzer  

By Jessica Snow, Biola University

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Summary of Life

Birth:

  • Definitely born before 1490 in Stolberg, Germany.[1]
  • Recent research has confirmed that 1489 is the most likely year.[2]

Early Years

  • (In general, there is very little information on the early years of Thomas Muntzer’s life.)
  • 1506 – Name is registered at the University of Leipzig.[3]
  • 1512 – attained master of arts and bachelors of theology from University of Frankfurt an der Oder.[4]
    • Specialized in Linguistics, particularly Greek, Hebrew, and Latin
  • 1513-1515 – Assistant teacher/clergyman in various schools[5]
  • 1516-1517 – Prior at Frohse monastery in Aschersleben.[6]

Middle Years

  • 1518 – Introduced to Martin Luther and interested in his ideas.[7]
  • 1519 – Speaks out against the Franciscan order and the veneration of the saints.[8]
    • Ideas fit in the box, wants to push the envelope
  • 1519-1520 – Goes back to school to develop these new ideas at the monastery of Beuditz at Weissenfels.[9]
    • During this time he developed his own views based in mysticism.
    • Thought Luther’s work was important for both church and secular life.
  • Pastored at Zwickau where there was large separation between common people and the upper class
    • Sided most often with the common people believing authority comes from within God’s own and not from the Bible, thus deviating from both the Roman Catholic church and Luther.
    • Was encouraged to be here by Luther originally, later kicked out for his differing ideas.[10]
  • 1521 – Published manifesto in Prague on a new church rising up that would be governed by the Holy Spirit.[11]
  • 1522 – Recognizing vast differences from Luther by getting into a disagreement with his supporters where they are the ones threatening him.[12]

Later Years

  • 1522 – Meets future wife, Ottilie von Gersen, who used to be a nun.[13]
  • 1523 – Became pastor at a church in Allstedt.[14]
  • 1525 – Gives vision for the people to bring about God’s justice and takes his place as the Commander of the troops in the Peasant War.[15]

Death

  • Died May 27, 1525, beheaded after the Peasants War didn’t succeed.

Influence and Recognition

  • Influenced by:
    • Martin Luther was an initial influence to Muntzer to think differently and challenge the assumptions of authority. Muntzer took this further and in a different direction over the years after discovering Luther, but Luther was still the initial inspiration.
    • Nikolaus Storch, led a reform group called the “Zwickau prophets” that influenced Muntzer in authority coming from God’s people and not scripture.[16] This notion is what encouraged Muntzer to lead the peasants into war, because he believed they were God’s people bringing divine judgment and truth.
  • Influenced:
    • Locally and immediately, Muntzer influence the thousands of peasants that partook in the Peasant War. He encouraged them to fight as he believed the end was drawing near, and they were about to bring God’s wrath and plan for the church.
    • 1843 – Friedrich Engels, a co-founder of Marxism, wrote that Christians must be in society that shares all things to be “proper.” He reached this conclusion after reading Muntzer’s writings.[17] Engels always assumed that Muntzer was much more concerned about the social aspect of his movement than the religious. He just used the religious part to get his point across.[18]
    • 1975 – The Peasants War was noted by the German Democratic Republic, bringing it into the light again noticed more modernly for its ideological contributions.[19]
  •  Known for:
    • Thomas Muntzer is most commonly known for the Peasant War
    • Also known for his disagreements with Luther and the rest of the Reformation.
    • Theology of Revolution

Key Theological ideas

  • In development of theology, Muntzer focused greatly on pneumatology and eschatology.[20]
  • Theology of Revolution[21] – This is a term many use to describe Muntzer theology that the people of God needed to rise to fulfill the call God had for revolution in the land. This is the ideology that encouraged communist support later. It came from ideas he had seen Storch that encouraged the authority of God being displayed through people that possessed his Spirit.
  • Questioned Infant Baptism with the Anabaptists.[22]

Works

  • Types:
    • Muntzer wrote letters, speeches, and other rhetorical devices used for persuasion. He was focused on wanting to rally together the people through his writing.
  • Major Works:
    • Letter written to Count Ernst of Mansfeld
    • Vindication and Refutation
    • A Sermon before the Princes
    • “Open Letter to the People of Allstedt”
    • The Prague Manifesto
  • Publications:
    • Matheson ed. and trans., The Collected Works of Thomas Muntzer (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1988)

Secondary Works

  • Thomas Müntzer: Briefwechsel, ed. Siegfried Bräuer und Manfred Kobuch. Thomas-Müntzer-Ausgabe. Kritische Gesamtausgabe. Vol. 2. ed. Helmar Junghans und Armin Kolmle. Leipzig: Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. 2010. [ThMA 2]
    • This is a very important work on Muntzer that revolutionized many ideas about the relevancy of Muntzer as well as clarified many ambiguous historical facts or assumptions through meticulous research in just 2010.[23] Being almost 600 pages in length, this work is comprehensive and holds the most information on this Muntzer and his influences. Unfortunately though, it is also in German, so I was unable to read it.
  • Elliger, Walter. Thomas Müntzer : Leben u. Werk. n.p.: Göttingen : Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1975.
  • Junghans, Reinhard. “The rise and decline of Thomas Müntzer.” Lutheran Quarterly 5, no. 3, 1991: 247-276. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost.
    • I found this text to be especially insightful as it helped show the modern implications for the use of Muntzer’s words in the interpretation done by the communist party. Seeing the application of Muntzer’s ideas in a contemporary format is fascinating and saddening.
  • Josipovic, Mario, and William McNiel. “Thomas Müntzer as ‘Disturber of the Godless’: A Reassessment of His Revolutionary Nature.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 70, no. 4 (October 1996): 431-447. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials.
  • Bensing, Manfred, and Ed. 2014. “Müntzer, Thomas.” Encyclopædia Britannica Research Starters, EBSCOhost.

 

Bibliography

Bensing, Manfred, and Ed. 2014. “Müntzer, Thomas.” Encyclopædia Britannica Research Starters, EBSCOhost.

Josipovic, Mario, and William McNiel. “Thomas Müntzer as ‘Disturber of the Godless’: A Reassessment of His Revolutionary Nature.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 70, no. 4 (October 1996): 431-447. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials.

Junghans, Reinhard. “The rise and decline of Thomas Müntzer.” Lutheran Quarterly 5, no. 3: 247-276. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost.

Livingstone, E.A., Thomas Muntzer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.), Oxford University Press, 2015.

Maczka, Romwald. “Retheologizing Thomas Müntzer in the German Democratic Republic: 15 years of Marxist and non-Marxist research.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 63, no. 4: 345-366. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost.

Matheson, Peter. 2012. “Recent German research on Thomas Müntzer.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 86, no. 1: 97-109. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost.

Endnotes

[1] Manfred Bensing, and Ed. 2014. “Müntzer, Thomas.” Encyclopædia Britannica Research Starters, EBSCOhost (accessed March 21, 2017).

[2] Peter Matheson. 2012. “Recent German research on Thomas Müntzer.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 86, no. 1: 97-109. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed March 22, 2017).

[3] Bensing, “Müntzer, Thomas.”

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] E.A. Livingstone, Thomas Muntzer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.), Oxford University Press, 2015.

[11] Bensing, “Müntzer, Thomas.”

[12] Bensing, “Müntzer, Thomas.”

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Livingstone, “Thomas Muntzer”.

[16] Bensing, “Müntzer, Thomas.”

[17] Junghans, 248.

[18] Junghans, 249.

[19] Romwald Maczka. 1989. “Retheologizing Thomas Müntzer in the German Democratic Republic: 15 years of Marxist and non-Marxist research.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 63, no. 4: 345-366. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, 346.

[20] Reinhard Junghans. 1991. “The rise and decline of Thomas Müntzer.” Lutheran Quarterly 5, no. 3: 247-276. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, 246.

[21] Mario Josipovic, and William McNiel. “Thomas Müntzer as ‘Disturber of the Godless’: A Reassessment of His Revolutionary Nature.” The Mennonite Quarterly Review 70, no. 4 (October 1996): 431-447. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, 431.

[22] Livingstone, “Thomas Muntzer”.

[23] Matheson. “Recent German research on Thomas Müntzer.”

William Farel

Biographical Sketch of William Farel: French Protestant Reformer

by Lacey Lott

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Summary of Life:

The Pre-Conversion Years

1487-9: Pope Innocent VIII commands that the Waldensians (those living around Gap) be destroyed because of their worship of God and use of His Word

1489: William Farel is born in Gap in France

1489-1509: Farel grows up being taught to be religious as a Roman Catholic

1496: Decides he wants to learn and study, against his father’s wishes

1509: Persuades his father to let him go to Paris to gain more education

1510-1515: Begins reading the Scriptures when Pope Julius II called the OT and NT “the holy Bible”; learns Hebrew and Greek; learning from Jacques La Fevre

around 1515: Becomes a monk near Paris with Carthusian monks

around 1519: Returns to Paris after becoming more unhappy

1519: Forsakes the Roman Catholic Church

Learning, Preaching, Writing, and Being Persecuted

1519-20: Farel and LaFevre are invited by Bishop Briconnet to teach God’s Word at a college in Meaux-in the midst of persecution

1520-3: Begins to preach to villages surrounding Gap, eventually finding shelter from those persecuting him in Basel, Switzerland (a city free from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church)

1523: Writes theses/propositions based on Scripture itself that he submits in Basel against the wishes of authorities; receives much opposition, but also much encouragement by those who agree with him; Farel is actually driven from Basel through the convincing efforts of Erasmus

1523: Goes to Strasbourg, Germany, but is shortly summoned by Duke Ulrich to return to Basel to preach the gospel undercover

1524-5: Begins writing books and preaching more than ever in Montbeliard, France, under the protection of the German Empire

1525: Returns to Strasbourg and becomes depressed over the attacks taking place as well as deception coming to Christians even through well-known theologians

1526: Leaves Strasbourg on foot set to visit Oecolampadius in Basel, but gets stopped by a storm where the Lord renews his vigor

early 1527: The Council of Berne commissions Farel to preach to Aigle and the surrounding villages in the midst of civil opposition

late 1527: Farel is called to a meeting at Berne, which was one of the most powerful and influential meetings in the history of the Reformation

1528-31: Preaching and continuing to be persecuted to the point of near-death

1532: Begins preaching in Geneva where he is received by some, but torn down by the clergy who ask him to leave and find someone quieter to take his place

1532-3: Anthony Froment, a pastor from a small village, goes into Geneva to be a schoolteacher, also teaching about Jesus and drawing crowds of people in, but eventually having to flee because of the pressure of the priests

1536: Geneva supports the Reformation and Farel convinces John Calvin to stay there as his assistant

1538: Both Farel and Calvin are driven from Geneva because they refused to offer communion due to the laxity of church discipline and the lack of separating church and state

1541: Calvin is welcomed back to Geneva where he begins a movement of Protestants

The Final Years

1538-65: Farel lives in Neuchatel for the remaining years of his life

1558: Marries Mary Thorel at the age of 69

1560: Preaches in Gap one last time

1565-Dies in Neuchátel, Switzerland

Influence and Recognition:

Influenced

  • John Calvin-a student at the University of Paris not too long after Farel
  • Churches such as Montbeliard and Geneva
  • Countless Christians throughout Germany, France, and Switzerland-especially influencing the rise of Christians learning to read the Bible for themselves

Influenced by

  • Jacques LaFevre-one of the most learned professors at the University of Paris who became Farel’s tutor and most influential figure
  • Johann Oecolampadius-a German humanist and reformer who recommended Farel when he left Basel to Germany
  • John Calvin-a student at the University of Paris after Farel had already left
  • Ulrich Zwingli-a fellow theologian who encouraged Farel especially during times of intense persecution

Known for

  • Having translated many German tracts into French, utilizing the French translation of the New Testament that his tutor LaFevre had completed
  • Being “the heretic preacher,” “the blasphemer,” and “the image breaker” especially throughout French-speaking areas in Romanized Switzerland
  • Preaching directly from the Bible
  • Being a long-winded and intense preacher

Key Theological Ideas

  • Jesus Christ is the only One who offers forgiveness of sins, freely and fully, through His work on the cross to those who have faith in Him
  • Scripture
    • The Holy Bible is the only source of divine authority
    • Clarity of Scripture making it able to be understood
  • Complete rejection of Roman Catholicism
    • Rejection of papal authority
    • External tradition outside of Scripture cannot be tolerated
  • Eucharist
    • Greatly disagreed (and was saddened) with Luther’s theology concerning the Eucharist, even causing him to write to Luther with only deaf ears in response
    • Focused on the ‘spiritual’ work of the Eucharist rather than the ‘material’
  • Divine vs. Human Will
    • Divine will-pure in nature and form
    • Human will-deformed and completely unable to do God’s revealed will
    • Only once someone believes in the saving grace of Jesus Christ are they able to follow God’s revealed will

Works:

Types

  • Letters/Epistles
  • Tracts
  • Liturgies
  • Prayers
  • Sermons/Dogmatics
  • Books
  • Polemics/Arguments

Major Works

  • Most important work according to Farel:

Sommaire et brève declaration (Summary and brief declaration)

  • Farel wrote to offer clarity on the main points of Christianity that should be understood by all Christians. He expanded upon doctrines such as God, man, sin, good works, fasting, the power of pastors, the instruction of children, satisfaction, the resurrection, and many more, supporting his claims with Scripture throughout the entire document.
  • Le Pater Noster et le Credo (The Lord’s Prayer and Apostles’ Creed)
    • Farel’s translation and interpretation of the Lord’s Prayer and the Apostles’ Creed. His goal in this work was to provide prayers for Christians to be able to contemplate and pray.
  • La Maniere et fasson (Liturgical Practices and forms)
    • Farel wrote explanations of the way that Christians should practice baptism, marriage, the Lord’s Supper, public worship, and visitation of the sick, according to Scripture. His purpose in explaining these was to clarify even further his Sommaire for all Christians.

Original Publications (to name a few)

  • De la saincte Cene de nostre Seigneur Jesus et de son Testament confirmé par sa mort et passion. Traicté tresutile à tous chrestiens pour cognoistre la vraye institution et administration d’icelle Cene selon la vraye doctrine de l’Evangile (Of the holy Cene of our Lord Jesus and His Testament confirmed by His death and passion. A treacherous tract to all Christians to know the true institution and administration of this Cene according to the true doctrine of the Gospel). Geneva: Jean Crespin, 1553.
  • Du vrai usage de la croix et Jésus-Christ (From the true use of the cross of Jesus Christ). Reprint, Geneva: Jules-Guillaume Fick, 1865.
  • Epistre Envoyee au Duc de Lorraine (Epistle sent to the Duke of Lorraine). Geneva: Jehan Girard, 1543.
  • Epistre Envoyee aux Reliques de la dissipation horrible de de l’Antechrist (Epistle sent to the relics of the horrible dissipation of the Antichrist). 1544.
  • La Maniere et fasson (Liturgical Practices and forms). Neuchâtel, Pierre de Vingle, 1533.
  • Le glaive de la parole véritable, tiré contre le Bouclier de defense: duquel un Cordelier Libertin s’est voulu servir, pour approuver ses fausses et damnables opinions (The sword of the veritable speech, drawn against the Shield of defense: from which libertine Cordelier intended to serve to approve his false and damnable opinions). Geneva: Jean Girard, 1550.
  • Le Pater Noster et le Credo (The Lord’s Prayer and Apostles’ Creed), 1524. Reprint, Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1982.
  • La Tres Saincte Oraison que Nostre Seigneur Iesus a bailée à ses Apostres, les enseignant comme ilz et tous vrays crestiens doivent prier,
  • Sommaire et brève declaration (Summary and brief declaration), 1529/34. Edited by Arthur-L. Hofer. Neuchaˆtel: Belle Rivière, 1980.

Secondary Works:

Bevan, Frances A. William Farel. London: Alfred Holness, 1900.

Blackburn, William M. William Farel and the Story of the Swiss Reform. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1865.

Heyer, Henry. Guillaume Farel: essai sur le développement de ses idées théologiques (Geneva : Ramboz et Schuhardt, 1872)

Junod, Louis. Farel: réformateur de la Suisse Romande et pasteur de l’église de Neuchatel. Neuchatel: Delachoux & Sandoz, 1865.

Kirchhofer, Melchior. Life of William Farel: The Swiss Reformer London : The Religious Tract Society, 1837.

Shidler, Don P. Elijah of the Alps. Smithville: Gospel Missionary Union, 1972.

Zuidema, Jason and Theodore G. Van Raalte. Early French Reform: The Theology and Spirituality of Guillaume Farel. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2011.

Shidler’s Elijah of the Alps and Zuidema’s Early French Reform were the most helpful. Shidler provides a detailed and understandable biography of Farel’s life, which can be used alongside Bevan and Balckburn’s biographies. Zuidema’s book focuses more on Farel’s theology and spirituality, making some of Farel’s most well known works available as well.

Bibliography:

Bevan, Frances A. William Farel. London: Alfred Holness, 1900.

Blackburn, William M. William Farel and the Story of the Swiss Reform. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1865.

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2012 ed. S.v. “Guillaume Farel.”

Post-Reformation Digital Library. 2014 ed. S.v. “Guillaume Farel: 1489-1565.”

Shidler, Don P. Elijah of the Alps. Smithville: Gospel Missionary Union, 1972.

Van Raalte, Theodore G. “Guillaume Farel’s Spirituality: Leading in Prayer.” Westminster Theological Journal 70 (October 2008): 277-301.

Zuidema, Jason and Theodore G. Van Raalte. Early French Reform: The Theology and Spirituality of Guillaume Farel. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2011.

Katharina Schütz Zell

Biography Sketch of Katharina Schütz Zell

by Molly Swanson

wibrandisrosenblattSummary of Life

1497/8: Born in Strasbourg, a town on the French/German border.

1505: Katharina dedicated herself to “religious matters” at the age of 7.[1]

1508: At age 10 Katharina dedicated herself to the church in celibacy and good works.

1509: Strasbourg clergy ally with Roman curia.

1518: At the age of 20 Martin Luther’s pamphlets begin to circulate in Strasbourg;                             Priest Matthew Zell takes charge of the town’s cathedral parish.

1521: Katharina converted to the Gospel by Luther and Zell’s teachings

1532: Martin Bucer arrives in Strasbourg; Matthew Zell and Katharina Schütz married                              on 3 December.

1524-1558: Katharina’s works are published.

1548: Matthew Zell died January 10; Katharina gave her Lament/exhortation

1562: Katharina dies in Strasbourg.

Influence and recognition:

Moral Reform: In her early years Katharina struggled with the assurance of salvation. She grew up under the preaching of Geiler von Kayserberg until his death in 1510. Geiler, being in his last years, was diligently focused on the moral reform of the clergy, and his sermons reflected it. Count William von Holstein took Geiler’s place as bishop in 1506 and kept the same focus on moral reform, but was overpowered in 1509 when the Strasbourg clergy allied with the Roman curia. Under Pope Julius there was no need for morals among clergy provided they paid the yearly taxes. Katharina was still very young, but the air of tension throughout Strasbourg could not go unnoticed.

Medieval theology: With the alliance of the Strasbourg clergy and the Roman curia the immorality of the clergy grew steadily worse. This also brought the theology of the pope closer to the people of Strasbourg with Sacraments of penance and Mass being the key means of grace. This caused Christians to struggle with their assurance of salvation. Though Katharina was devout in her younger years, she nevertheless could not find any peace in her salvation.

Luther: Katharina deeply identified with Luther’s theological crises of personal peace before God. Luther’s message of salvation as a gift from Christ, detached from any human work, opened the meaning of Scripture to her and gave her the confidence to search scripture for herself and rejoice in her position as a child of God.

Matthew Zell: It was under Zell’s position as preacher in Strasbourg that Katharina came to understand the Gospel. Zell brought with him the teachings of Luther; Zell claimed not to be teaching Luther, but viewed him as a better guide to understanding scripture that the tradition of the Pope. Highly influenced by Luther, Zell brought the gospel of liberation from works to Strasbourg, which Katharina fervently clung to.

Influenced:

  • Katharine was one of the first women to marry a pastor, and certainly the first respected woman in her city to marry none other than the most prominent priest in Strasbourg; This came even before the marriage of Martin Luther. Shortly after her marriage she published her “Apologia for Master Matthew Zell” which was a scriptural defense of clerical marriage. It was focused toward lay citizens such as herself and posed as a public defense of her faith and her actions.
  • Though Katharina did receive some challenges as a pamphleteer during her time, but the little town on Strasbourg provided a generous amount of protection for her, which allowed her writing to travel outside the little town. Martin Luther received a personal copy of Katharina’s first published work “Letters to the suffering women…”
  • Citizens and refugees that sought shelter from the persecution of the Pope and his followers. In 1524 the Zell’s took in more than 80 protestant refugees from the town over who felt compelled to leave as the Roman Catholic rulers grew more intense. Katharina provided meals and shelter for the men during the following month until the men had found permanent shelter.

Katharine was known for her motherly heart directed toward the lay people, the displaced, and those who were negatively viewed.

Theology:

  • Katharina had a strong reformed Lutheran leaning.
    • Christ is the sole savior. There are no human works needed for/able to bring about justification.
    • Moral uprightness is nevertheless a call of the Christian and an outpouring of faith.
    • She opposed the medieval death rites:
      • Man has an obligation to do as much as possible to add to his salvation
      • No one can be completely assured of salvation until death.
      • Man has free will to choose God, but that choice still only leads to a hope that God will forgive.
      • Prayers to the saints on behalf of the dying.
      • Obligation to confess every sin
      • Sacrament of extreme unction.
      • Purgatory
  • Katharina believed that Christ is the only mediator who does not forgive mechanically nor gives grace on account of holy rituals and objects. Christ is the sole savior who gives faith as a confirmed gift, which needs no help from man’s works.
  • Katharina believed clergy could be married. This she showed with her actions, as well as with her words, writing a defense for her position, against that of the medieval church.
  • She believed that she was responsible, after and with no reference to salvation, to live out kingdom work and moral uprightness with her abilities and skills. She never wanted to be a pastor, but supported her husband and worked in theological and ecclesial pursuit beside him.
  • This included lay people into the work of the Kingdom. She did not believe, with the medieval church, that holiness was just for the clergy, but believed that she could search the scriptures herself – that all lay people, under right supervision and with correct teaching, could read the scriptures for themselves.
  • In her eulogy given at her husband’s funeral she likened herself to Mary Madeline, the apostle of apostles, who did not ask but was called to proclaim the gospel. Her situation in life gave her a platform and she took that space and ability to proclaim the gospel. She wanted to include the rest of the lay people into this practical theology of working with the means that you have.

Works

Types: Katharina wrote letters in the form of booklets and correspondence, treatises, a hymnbook that she translated into German, scriptural meditations, songs, and a sermon.

Major Works:

  • Letter to the suffering women of the Community of Kentzingen, who believe in Christ, sisters with me in Jesus Christ. (1524)
  • Katharina Schütz’s Apologia For Master Matthew Zell, Her Husband, Who is a pastor and servant of the Word of God in Strasbourg, because of the great lies invented about him. (1524)
  • Hymnbook of the Bohemian Brethren. (1531)
  • Some Christian and Comforting Songs of Praise about Jesus Christ our Savior (1534-6)
  • Lament and Exhortation of Katharina Zell to the People at the Grave of Master Matthew Zell. (January 11, 1548)
  • A Letter to the Whole Citizenship of the city of Strasbourg from Katharina Zell, Widow of the (Now Blessed) Matthew Zell, The Former and First Preacher of the Gospel in This City, Concerning Mr. Ludwig Rabus, Now a Preacher of the City of Ulm, Together With Two Letters: Hers and His. May Many Read These and Judge Without Favor or Hate But Alone Take to Heart the Truth. Also a Healthy Answer to Each Article of His Letter. (March 1558)
  • The Misere Psalm Meditated, Prayed, and Paraphrased with King David by Katharina Zell, The Blessed Matthew Zell’s Widow. Together with the Our Father with its Explanation, Sent to the Christian Man Sir Felix Armbruster for Comfort in His Illness, and Published for the Sake of Afflicted Consciences that are Troubled by Sins. Some Sayings from the Psalms and Prophets. (August 1558)

Secondary Works:

  • Zell, Katharina. Church mother the writings of a Protestant reformer in sixteenth-century Germany. Translated by Elsie Anne. McKee. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
  • McKee, Elsie Anne. Katharina Schütz Zell the Life and Thought of a Sixteenth-century Reformer. Vol. 1. Leiden: Brill, 1999
  • Stjerna, Kirsi. Women and the Reformation. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub., 2009.four
  • McKee, Elsie Anne. Reforming Popular Piety in Sixteenth-century Strasbourg: Katharina Schütz Zell and Her Hymnbook. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Theological Seminary, 1994.

Bibliography

  • McKee, Elsie Anne. Katharina Schütz Zell. 1. Leiden: Brill, 1999.
  • McKee, Elsie Anne. Katharina Schütz Zell. 2. Leiden: Brill, 1999.
  • “PIERRE VIRET HISTORICAL SITES.” The Pierre Viret Association – USA. http://www.pierreviret.org/map-strasbourg.php.

[1] The council of Cologne regarded 7 years old as the youngest age for confirmation. This is a claim that Katharina made herself. She may have been referring to that confirmation, when the basics of faith would have been taught to her by her godparents and she would have received the Holy Spirit by the laying on hands by a bishop. See McKee, Vol.1, p. 13.